Feature Descriptions

This section describes new features that affect the D-Wave system, including annealing features, changes to the Solver API, and significant additions to the Leap™ quantum cloud service.

Features are listed in date order, with the most recent first.

Note

Features introduced before October 2018 are not listed here.

Summary

Table 57 Release Summary
Release Date Features
2021-06-16 Revision to Release Note for Leap’s DQM Solver
2021-05-05 Change to Orders and Billing Access via Leap
2021-05-05 Documentation Improvement: Updated Solver Properties and Parameters Guide
2021-04-21 Documentation Improvement: Updated Problem-Solving Handbook
Japanese Translation of Leap Cloud Subscription Agreement: Japan
2021-03-24 New Working Graph for Backup Advantage System
2021-03-10 Downloadable Privacy Policy and Terms & Conditions
2021-02-22 Leap Expands to Singapore
2021-02-10 Deprecated Timing Fields Removed from Solver API
Resolved Energy Offset Issue Affecting Some Hybrid Problems
Resolved MFA Email Issue
2021-01-27 Removed Statistics Panel on Leap’s Dashboard
Assign Problem Labels
2021-01-13 Terms and Conditions for Japanese Users of Leap
Resolved Incorrect Energies Returned by Hybrid Solver
2020-12-16 User Statistics Available on Leap’s Dashboard
2020-12-02 Problem Details Available on Leap’s Dashboard
Multiple-Project Support
2020-11-18 Solver Details Available on Leap’s Dashboard
2020-11-04 Resolved Failures on Version 2 of Hybrid BQM Solver
2020-10-21 SAPI Returns Correct Estimate of Solver Load
2020-10-07 Hybrid Solver Service: DQM Solver
2020-09-29 Advantage™ General Availability
Leap’s Hybrid Solvers: Enhanced BQM Solver
2020-08-13 Access to D-Wave Quantum Computers via Amazon Braket
2020-07-29 Documentation Enhancement: Pegasus
Qubist Display of Problems Status
2020-07-15 Leap Expands to India and Australia
Project Managers Can Now Administer Quota
2020-06-17 Hybrid Solver Service: Increased Problem Size
2020-06-03 SAPI Sets Default Timing Information
2020-02-26 (Leap 2 launch) Hybrid Solver Service
Online Integrated Developer Environment
Problem Inspector
Integrated Examples
New Subscription Options
2020-12-11 New Solver Property: quota_conversion_rate
New Solver Property: category
2020-11-27 New Jupyter Notebook: Hybrid Computing
2019-08-07 More Flexible Anneal Schedules Now Possible
2019-06-26 General Availability of D-Wave Hybrid
New Jupyter Notebook: Feature Selection
2019-04-01 New Solver Property: tags
2019-03-06 Time-Dependent Gain in Hamiltonian Biases
2018-10-02 (Leap launch) Leap™ Launch

2021-06-16 Leap Release

Revision to Release Note for Leap’s DQM Solver

The content of release note Hybrid Solver Service: DQM Solver is revised for a software update deployed in February 2021 that changed the limits on the supported numbers of variables (previously 5,000) and total biases (previously 2 billion). The revised sentence now states, “It accepts problems with up to 3,000 discrete variables, each of which can represent sets of up to 10,000 values, and 3 billion total linear plus quadratic biases (values assigned to both nodes and edges of the graph representing your problem).”

See the Hybrid Solver Service: DQM Solver release note below for more information.

2021-05-19 Leap Release

Change to Orders and Billing Access via Leap

As of May 19, 2021, orders and billing information is no longer directly available to customers through the Leap™ system.

No action is required: Our system will continue to charge your credit card for your monthly Leap access, and a copy of the receipt will automatically be sent to you.

2021-05-05 Leap Release

Documentation Improvement: Updated Solver Properties and Parameters Guide

The Solver Properties and Parameters describes the solvers available through SAPI, their properties, and the parameters they accept with a problem submission.

A recent update has restructured this guide to make it easier to use and added basic usage examples for QPU and hybrid solvers.

2021-04-21 Leap Release

Documentation Improvement: Updated Problem-Solving Handbook

The Problem-Solving Handbook provides advanced guidance on using D-Wave solvers, in particular QPU solvers. It explains and demonstrates techniques of problem formulation, minor-embedding, and configuring QPU parameters to optimize performance.

A recent update has restructured and expanded this guide and made its techniques more widely accessible by adding Ocean code examples for many that were previously described only through mathematical formulation.

Japanese Translation of Leap Cloud Subscription Agreement: Japan

A Japanese translation of the Leap Cloud Subscription Agreement for Japan is available for download at Subscription Agreement: Japan.

The official legal document is the English language version of the Agreement.

2021-03-24 Leap Release

New Working Graph for Backup Advantage System

The backup Advantage system—renamed to Advantage_system3.2—has a new working graph that can be found here: QPU-Specific Physical Properties.

The anneal schedule for Advantage_system3.2 is identical to the previous Advantage_system3.1 schedule, and can be found here: QPU-Specific Anneal Schedules.

2021-03-10 Leap Release

Downloadable Privacy Policy and Terms & Conditions

The Leap Privacy Policy and Terms and Conditions are now available for download as PDFs here:

2021-02-22 Leap Release

Leap Expands to Singapore

As of February 23, 2021, users from Singapore who are interested in real-time access to a commercial quantum computer can sign up for the Leap™ quantum cloud service. This expansion brings the total number of supported countries in North America, Europe and Asia-Pacific to 38.

2021-02-10 Leap Release

Deprecated Timing Fields Removed from Solver API

In release notes 2.4 in 2016, the names of the four timing fields shown in the table below were reported as being deprecated and the Solver Computation Time guide was updated to show the replacement field names. From this release, the old field names are no longer supported in the Solver API. If you have any code that is still using the old names, please update to the new ones.

Table 58 Discontinued timing fields in SAPI
Discontinued Name New Name
total_real_time qpu_access_time
run_time_chip qpu_sampling_time
anneal_time_per_run qpu_anneal_time_per_sample
readout_time_per_run qpu_readout_time_per_sample

Resolved Energy Offset Issue Affecting Some Hybrid Problems

Some customers may have encountered an issue where the energy offset was dropped for some sparse problems submitted to the hybrid_binary_quadratic_model_version2 solver. This issue is now resolved.

Resolved MFA Email Issue

Some customers may have received multiple multi-factor authentication (MFA) emails when logging into Leap. This issue is now resolved.

2021-01-27 Leap Release

Removed Statistics Panel on Leap’s Dashboard

The Stats panel, which showed the status of a quantum computer (temperature, number of qubits, etc.) is removed. You can view information about solvers by clicking on the solver name.

Assign Problem Labels

You can now assign labels to the problems you submit to D-Wave solvers. Labels are strings that have meaning to you or are generated by your application, which can help you identify your problem submission. The Problem Status panel displays the problem label by default; you can return to displaying problem IDs by clicking the settings icon beside the Problem Label heading. Problems without labels are displayed with <unlabeled> in the Problem Label column. This example submits a simple problem and reads the label in the returned response.

>>> from dwave.system import DWaveSampler, EmbeddingComposite
>>> sampler = EmbeddingComposite(DWaveSampler())
>>> sampleset = sampler.sample_ising({}, {('q1', 'q2'): -1}, label="Simple Ising problem")
>>> sampleset.info['problem_label']
'Simple Ising problem'

The system-generated problem ID remains the unique identifier for a problem.

2021-01-13 Leap Release

Terms and Conditions for Japanese Users of Leap

Terms and conditions for Japanese users of Leap are here: Leap Cloud Subscription Agreement: Japan.

Resolved Incorrect Energies Returned by Hybrid Solver

This release resolves an issue where some problems submitted to hybrid_binary_quadratic_model_version2 returned noticeably incorrect energies.

2020-12-16 Leap Release

User Statistics Available on Leap’s Dashboard

Leap’s dashboard now lets you view and download your problem-submission statistics for Leap solvers.

_images/leap_site_user_stats.png

Fig. 125 User statistics panel in Leap.

2020-12-04 Leap Release

Problem Details Available on Leap’s Dashboard

You can now see detailed information about problems that you have submitted to Leap solvers. You can also search and filter the list of problems and cancel any pending ones (problems that are canceled before they complete do not use any solver access time).

_images/leap_site_problems.png

Fig. 126 Problem-Status panel in Leap.

Multiple-Project Support

This release enhances support for users in multiple projects. For users with access to multiple projects, Leap now displays information for the user’s active project; this includes the name of the project, amount of solver access time remaining in the current period, amount of time used, available solvers, API token used to connect to the solvers, and list of problems submitted. To switch which project is currently active, click the username on the top right of the Leap dashboard and select Projects. Any change to the active project also affects IDE workspaces. Be aware that any problem submitted, including those via Leap’s animated demos, will deduct time from the active project.

_images/leap_site_mps_dropdown_menu.png

Fig. 127 Changing active projects from the Dashboard.

While in an IDE workspace, you can use the leapide workspace command to see which project the workspace is pinned to.

Leap IDE /workspace/antenna-selection $ leapide workspace
Workspace ID: abc12345-1234-1a2b-3c4d5-123456789012
Project: Developer (id=123, code=DEV)
Leap IDE /workspace/antenna-selection $

The IDE periodically imports your API token from Leap. If you reset your token on the Leap dashboard, your new token is automatically updated in the IDE within a minute.

Every workspace you create is pinned to a project in your account. If your account has access to multiple projects, the IDE imports the API token for the project pinned to the current workspace. You can override the imported API token by setting the DWAVE_API_TOKEN environment variable in the IDE. (The imported token is set as in a system-wide configuration file; configuration priority is described in Ocean’s cloud-client documentation.) If you currently have manually set DWAVE_API_TOKEN environment variables in your workspace, consider deleting these to benefit from automatic imports.

Note

Only users in multiple projects will see this change. Self-signed up users with free Leap accounts only have access to the Developers project, which sets their usage quota and API tokens.

2020-11-18 Leap Release

Solver Details Available on Leap’s Dashboard

The properties of a solver and the user parameters that it accepts are available on the Leap™ dashboard. From the list of supported solvers, simply click a solver name to view these details. For more information on solver properties and parameters, see Solver Properties and Parameters Reference.

Some properties, such as the qubits property for a QPU solver, are Python dicts; these can be copied to your clipboard with a single click.

2020-11-04 Leap Release

Resolved Failures on Version 2 of Hybrid BQM Solver

This release resolves an issue that affected problems submitted to the following hybrid solver: hybrid_binary_quadratic_model_version2. Previously, problems with over 20,000 variables submitted to this solver may have failed. Affected problems did not consume any solver access time.

2020-10-21 Leap Release

SAPI Returns Correct Estimate of Solver Load

This release fixes the returned value for a solver’s recent average load, avg_load. When queried for a solver, SAPI returns estimates of how busy each solver was in the recent past, which enables client software such as Ocean’s cloud-client to prefer solvers that are less busy. You can see this estimate, provided at the time of selection, for an Ocean sampler:

>>> from dwave.system import DWaveSampler
>>> sampler = DWaveSampler()
>>> sampler.solver.avg_load
0.04

An error introduced in late 2019 caused SAPI to always return a value of 1.0.

2020-10-07 Leap Release

Hybrid Solver Service: DQM Solver

Note

This section was revised on June 16, 2021 to account for a software deployment in February that made the following updates:

  • The maximum_number_of_biases property, which sets the maximum number of biases, both linear and quadratic in total, accepted by the solver, was increased from 2 to 3 billion.
  • The maximum_number_of_variables property, which sets the maximum number of problem variables accepted by the solver, was reduced from 5,000 to 3,000.

The second paragraph below, which previously stated that the solver accepts problems with up to 5,000 variables and 2 billion biases, now contains the revised numbers 3,000 variables and 3 billion biases.

Leap 2 introduced the Leap™ hybrid solver service (HSS), which provides cloud-based quantum-classical hybrid solvers. These hybrid solvers, which implement state-of-the art classical algorithms together with intelligent allocation of the quantum processing unit (QPU) to parts of the problem where it benefits most, are designed to accommodate even very large problems.

Until this release, you could submit problems formulated as arbitrarily structured binary quadratic models (BQMs). This release introduces a discrete quadratic model (DQM) solver for problems with variables that that represent a set of values such as {red, green, blue, yellow} or {3.2, 67}. The first online DQM solver is hybrid_discrete_quadratic_model_v1. It accepts problems with up to 3,000 discrete variables, each of which can represent sets of up to 10,000 values, and 3 billion total linear plus quadratic biases (values assigned to both nodes and edges of the graph representing your problem).

Submit problems to the hybrid DQM solver as you would submit any BQM-formulated problem; in Ocean software use dwave-system tool’s LeapHybridDQMSampler.

For details on the solver, see Using Leap’s Hybrid Solvers.

2020-09-29 Leap Release: Advantage

Advantage™ General Availability

With this release, D-Wave’s new quantum computer, Advantage, becomes generally available to users with Leap and Amazon Braket accounts.

Advantage is the first and only quantum system designed for business and is the most powerful and connected commercial quantum computer in the world. With more than 5000 qubits and 35,000 couplers, Advantage gives users the ability to solve larger, more complex problems, both directly on the quantum processing unit (QPU) and indirectly by using Leap’s hybrid solvers, and drive real-world value for their businesses.

Advantage QPUs are named Advantage_system<x.y>, with x numbering solver (D-Wave system) resources[#] and y possibly incrementing on updates such as newer calibrations; for example, the first online QPU is Advantage_system1.1 with backup provided by Advantage_system2.1.

[1]Because Ocean software provides postprocessing tools such as dwave-greedy in lieu of online (server-side) postprocessing, Virtual Full-Yield Chip Solver (VFYC) resources are not supported for the Advantage.

You can learn about the Advantage QPU’s Pegasus topology in the Getting Started with the D-Wave System guide and in Leap’s new Exploring the Pegasus Topology Jupyter Notebook, which also demonstrates relevant Ocean tools and gives an example of setting different chain strengths[1] for problems submitted to Advantage and D-Wave 2000Q QPUs.

[2]When running on the Advantage problems previously configured for a D-Wave 2000Q, you should adjust the chain_strength parameter because chains are typically shorter on the Advantage. For an example, see Using the Problem Inspector, which uses Ocean’s problem inspector tool to illustrate the benefit of using an appropriate chain strength.

By default, if you do not specify selection criteria for a QPU, Ocean gives preference to Advantage over D-Wave 2000Q solvers[2].

[3]You can explicitly select a D-Wave 2000Q solver; for example, sampler = EmbeddingComposite(DWaveSampler(solver={'topology__type': 'chimera'})).

Leap’s Hybrid Solvers: Enhanced BQM Solver

Hybrid portfolio solvers, which in parallel to QPU processing run a variety of classical algorithms, are suited to a wide range of binary quadratic model (BQM) problems.

D-Wave’s hybrid solver service released its first hybrid portfolio solver, hybrid_v1, on February 26. That solver accepts problems of up to 10,000 variables and makes use of the D-Wave 2000Q for quantum acceleration.

This release supports an enhanced version of this solver, hybrid_binary_quadratic_model_version2, which uses stronger algorithms, exploits the more powerful Advantage QPU, and accepts larger problems. You can now submit problems with up to 1 million variables, or 200 million total linear plus quadratic biases (values assigned to both nodes and edges of the graph representing your problem).

_images/hss_bqm_v1_vs_v2_from_pdf.png

Fig. 128 Problem size comparison: hybrid_binary_quadratic_model_version2 versus hybrid_v1.

For more information, see Technical Report 4-1048A-A.

2020-08-12 Amazon Braket Release

Access to D-Wave Quantum Computers via Amazon Braket

Access to D-Wave quantum computers is now also possible through Amazon Braket, a fully managed Amazon Web Services (AWS) service.

2020-07-29 Leap Release

Documentation Enhancement: Pegasus

This release updates the system documentation with descriptions of the new QPU topology, Pegasus, in advance of the upcoming release of D-Wave’s new Advantage™ quantum computer.

As of July 2020, users do not yet have access to an Advantage system. However, if you wish to familiarize yourself with the new topology, see the chapter on QPU topologies in Getting Started with the D-Wave System. See also the Pegasus functionality of Ocean tools under dwave_networkx.

Qubist Display of Problems Status

This release updates the presentation of the status of submitted problems in the Qubist user interface: by default, problems from the last day are displayed. Previously results were not filtered by date.

2020-07-15 Leap Release

Leap Expands to India and Australia

As of July 20 2020, users from India and Australia who are interested in real-time access to a commercial quantum computer can sign up for the Leap™ quantum cloud service. This expansion brings the total number of supported countries in North America, Europe and Asia-Pacific to 37.

Access Leap™ here: https://cloud.dwavesys.com/leap.

Project Managers Can Now Administer Quota

Customers with a D-Wave “project manager” role for the systems used by their organization can now administer their own project’s user quota without having to go through D-Wave Support. Project managers can manage quota via the Qubist user interface: select Admin > Manage Quota to do so.

2020-06-17 Leap Release

Hybrid Solver Service: Increased Problem Size

This release increases the maximum size of problems you can upload to the Leap™ hybrid solver service (HSS) from 2 GB to 40 GB.

Note for users of the hybrid_v1 solver: this change does not enable increases to problem size for this solver, which continues to accept problems of up to 10,000 variables.

For uploading large problems in in multiple parts, see Solver API REST Web Services Developer Guide.

2020-06-03 Leap Release

SAPI Sets Default Timing Information

This release sets default values of zero (0) in all timing fields returned from a D-Wave system for non-executed problems; for example, an Ising problem with empty input fields for both \(h\) and \(J\). Previously, SAPI returned an empty dict.

2020-02-26 Leap Release: Leap 2

Hybrid Solver Service

Leap 2 introduces the Leap™ hybrid solver service (HSS), which includes cloud-based quantum-classical hybrid solvers to which you can submit problems formulated as arbitrarily structured binary quadratic models (BQMs). These hybrid solvers, which implement state-of-the art classical algorithms together with intelligent allocation of the quantum processing unit (QPU) to parts of the problem where it benefits most, are designed to accommodate even very large problems. This first release of the HSS includes the hybrid_v1 solver that accepts problems of up to 10,000 variables. It is a portfolio solver, meaning that in parallel to QPU processing it runs a variety of classical algorithms, making it suited to a wide range of problems.

Submit problems to the hybrid solver as you would submit any BQM-formulated problem; from Ocean software’s dwave-system tool, use the new LeapHybridSampler.

See the Structural Imbalance in a Social Network example in the Ocean software documentation.

Online Integrated Developer Environment

Leap 2 introduces a new online integrated developer environment (IDE) as part of Leap. The Leap IDE provides a ready-to-code environment in the cloud for Python development. Accessible from your browser, it is configured with the latest Ocean SDK and includes the new D-Wave problem inspector and standard Python debugging tools. Seamless GitHub integration means that developers can easily access D-Wave’s latest code examples, develop quantum applications, and contribute to the Ocean tools from within the IDE. Powered by gitpod.io, the Leap IDE is customizable via a Docker file.

Problem Inspector

Leap 2 introduces a tool for visualizing problems submitted to, and answers received from, a D-Wave structured solver such as a D-Wave 2000Q quantum computer.

dwave-inspector provides a graphic interface for examining D-Wave quantum computers’ problems and answers. The D-Wave system solves problems formulated as BQMs that are mapped to its qubits in a process called minor-embedding. Because the way you choose to minor-embed a problem (the mapping and related parameters) affects solution quality, it can be helpful to see it.

See the Using the Problem Inspector example in the Ocean software documentation.

Integrated Examples

Leap 2 introduces a D-Wave code examples GitHub repository and its search page on the Leap website. This collection of examples already contains over a dozen examples, including examples of factoring, graph problems, feature selection, and more. The new page on the Leap website enables you to filter the examples by tags such as problem type, industry, and tags.

New Subscription Options

Leap 2 adds new Leap subscription options that enable you to upgrade your account for additional time in blocks that suit your need and budget. With the introduction of Hybrid Solver Service, subscriptions now provide access to D-Wave’s hybrid solvers as well as its QPUs.

Documentation Enhancements

Leap 2 updates the following system documents:

The online system documentation now includes a “Using Leap’s Hybrid Solvers” section.


2020-12-11 Leap Release

New Solver Property: category

This release introduces a new solver property, category, that identifies the solver type; for example, qpu.

New Solver Property: quota_conversion_rate

This release introduces a new solver property, quota_conversion_rate, so you can see the rate at which a particular solver consumes user or project quota. Some solver types might consume quota at different rates.


2020-11-27 Leap Release

New Jupyter Notebook: Hybrid Computing

Try out the new Hybrid Computing Jupyter Notebook, which demonstrates how you can apply dwave-hybrid solvers to your problem, create hybrid workflows, and develop custom hybrid components.

Jupyter Notebooks are available online through Leap.


2019-08-07 Leap Release

More Flexible Anneal Schedules Now Possible

For the online systems, this release introduces more flexible parameters for generating anneal schedules. Specifically, you can now create an anneal schedule with up to 12 points in its waveform (the previous configured maximum was 4), and the annealing slope range is expanded to -1.0 to 1.0 (the previous configured range was 0.0 to 1.0). Furthermore, the anneal fractions need not increase monotonically, which means that sawtooth patterns are possible.

For more information on modifying the default anneal schedule, see Technical Description of the D-Wave Quantum Processing Unit.


2019-06-26 Leap Release

General Availability of D-Wave Hybrid

D-Wave Hybrid is now part of the Ocean SDK. D-Wave Hybrid provides a simple, open-source hybrid workflow platform for building and running quantum-classical hybrid applications.

Download the Ocean SDK

New Jupyter Notebook: Feature Selection

Try out the new Feature Selection Jupyter Notebook, which uses a hybrid sampler to showcase a machine learning technique. Jupyter Notebooks are available online through Leap.


2019-04-01 Leap Release

New Solver Property: tags

This release introduces a new solver property, tags, that may hold attributes about a solver that you can use to have a client program choose one solver over another.

For example, the following attribute identifies a solver as lower-noise:

"tags": ["lower_noise"]

2019-03-06 Leap Release

Time-Dependent Gain in Hamiltonian Biases

This release increases user control of the Hamiltonian that represents the D-Wave system’s quantum anneal by introducing a time-dependent gain on its linear coefficients.

The h_gain_schedule parameter described in the Solver Properties and Parameters Reference guide enables users to specify the \(g(t)\) function in,

\begin{equation} {\cal H}_{ising} = - \frac{A({s})}{2} \left(\sum_i {\hat\sigma_{x}^{(i)}}\right) + \frac{B({s})}{2} \left(\sum_{i} g(t) h_i {\hat\sigma_{z}^{(i)}} + \sum_{i>j} J_{i,j} {\hat\sigma_{z}^{(i)}} {\hat\sigma_{z}^{(j)}}\right) \end{equation}

where \({\hat\sigma_{x,z}^{(i)}}\) are Pauli matrices operating on a qubit \(q_i\) (the quantum one-dimensional Ising spin) and \(h_i\) and \(J_{i,j}\) the qubit biases and coupling strengths.

Currently this feature is used experimentally for a form of material simulation described in http://science.sciencemag.org/content/361/6398/162.


2018-10-02 Leap Release

Leap™ Launch

With this release, D-Wave launches Leap™ , our new quantum cloud service. Access it here: https://cloud.dwavesys.com/leap.

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